Beyond Streets – Graffiti

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Open in Los Angeles till August 26- with Andrew Luft


BEYOND THE STREETS (BTS) is the premier exhibition of graffiti, street art and beyond, celebrating the soaring heights to which the world’s most recognizable modern art movement has risen. BTS is a groundbreaking multimedia showcase of paintings, sculpture, photography, installations and more throughout 40,000+ sq ft of industrial indoor and outdoor space.

BEYOND THE STREETS is curated by Roger Gastman. He is a graffiti historian, urban anthropologist and collector who Forbes says “has made a career of being the cultural connector between street artists and the art world.” BEYOND THE STREETS is Gastman’s dynamic follow-up to Art in the Streets, the U.S.’ first-ever graffiti and street art retrospective which broke MoCA Los Angeles’ attendance record with 220,000 visitors. Known for founding and co-publishing Swindle magazine with Shepard Fairey, Gastman co-authored The History of American Graffiti and co-produced the Oscar Award-nominated Banksy documentary Exit Through the Gift Shop.

Additional curation by Editor in Chief of Juxtapoz Magazine Evan Pricco, author and historian Caleb Neelon, and legendary NYC graffiti writer and historian David “Chino” Villorente. Adam Lerner, Director of the MCA Denver serves as a curatorial advisor. The exhibition is produced by Ian Mazie.



Cousin’s Tour of the California Coast: Los Angeles to Bodega Bay April/ May 2018



Wendy Golding and I left Los Angeles on April 22nd after  dinner and short visit in Culver City,  with my son, Matt Bender,  his wife Melanie and my grand daughter Mila. We stayed in Ventura that night.

The next morning we took the ferry to Scorpion Bay at Santa Cruz Island  where we kayaked into a few of the caves. We hiked the island’s coast trail up the bluff to overlook the Channel towards the California Coast. We saw several of the island foxes, which are native to six of the eight Channel Islands of California. Because of the isolation of each of the islands, each subspecies is unique to the island where it lives.  On our return ferry trip we were accompanied by a huge pod of dolphins. It was a  wonderful day  on the water!

Our tour continued up to the quaint Danish type town of Solvang, the Madonna Inn and up the coast to Morro Bay where we walked around Morro Rock and then continued our drive north and a walk on the Moonstone Beach Boardwalk. We ended the day just south of San Simeon where we spent the night so the next day we could tour Hearst Castle.

The Hearst Castle tour included the guesthouses, the main house the pool and tennis courts. We headed up the coat to see the Elephant Seal rookery with these huge animals and the baby seals.

Highway 1 is still closed from the landslides so we headed over the hills on Highway 46 back to Highway 101 and north through Paso Robles to Bradley, where we went west over the mountains to the coast and Highway 1 just south of the tiny town of Lucia. We continued our drive up the coast with a quick stop at Nepenthe to stay in Pacific Grove and had a great dinner at The Monterey Fish House.

The next morning we headed to the Monterey Bay Aquarium but discovered the Monterey Pacific Trail and went for a gorgeous walk past the Seal Rookery and to Lover’s Point. As we returned to the town of Monterey, we heard that there was a group of sea otters in one of the coves. We never did see the otters, but discovered that one of the Whale Watch boats had seen orcas that morning, so we headed out on the boat, where we saw several pods of Orcas and had the great fortune to see them up close! Wendy took a spectacular video of one pod.

We headed up the coast to stay with Wendy’s friends from college, Lauren and Vince Cardinale in Los Gatos. They have Camp Cardinale, a Pet Sitting and Vacation for Dogs.   We ate dinner with friends and canines.

Lauren and Vince advised us not to miss the Apple Building which was on our way up to Muir Woods and the coast north of San Francisco.   We hiked the trails in Muir Woods and continued up through Stinson Beach to Bodega Bay to meet my cousin and Wendy’s Aunt,  Kate Hecht.

Kate continued as our tour guide with visits to several wineries and a hike at  Bodega Head.  We finished the day at Kate’s home in Bodega Bay with a crab cake dinner and a spectacular sunset overlooking the Pacific. I left the next morning to drive back to San Diego, but Kate and Wendy went to San Francisco to continue their trip.                        What fun with my cousins, I hope we can keep heading up the coast on future trips!

PUBLISHING PICTURES- We love you to love our pictures but please ask permission before using and give credit to the photographer.  Thanks Debbie Hecht

Yucatan 2018

Jon Luft and I travelled to Valladolid, Mexico on the Yucatan peninsula in March and April  of 2018 to meet his cousins,  Susan and Greg Dorr and Ruth Stitt.  We had been there previously, but learned that Susan and Greg had great friends there who lived in Dzitnup, Jose and Alicia Roman Poot Moo, their children and extended family.  We were there during Easter week and we saw lots of  churches.   We explored cenotes, the underground lakes to cool off after touring the  Mayan temples.   It was a great trip especially being with family who are friends.


2% LAND FUND helps build KULEANA COMMUNITIES Hawai’i County’s 2% Land Fund Report


2% acquisitions map

MARCH 2018:  It has been my great honor to be Campaign Coordinator for the 2% Land Fund over the last 13 years. I have learned that kuleana communities are built around our island’s treasured places. Building community is the “gold” and the greatest benefit that has grown out of the struggles for the 2% Land Fund.   Out of this love of the land has grown non-profit community groups that are volunteering their time and using their own money to care for these special places.   To see the 2017 Report to the Mayor by the Public Access and Open Space Commission (PONC), which lists this year’s top 10 properties recommended for conservation go to:

THE MAINTENANCE FUND CHARTER AMENDMENT was on the ballot in 2012. Council member Brenda Ford and I wrote the legislation creating the 2% Maintenance Fund to care for the lands obtained by the 2% Land Fund. Maintenance Fund grants are available to community groups who are maintaining Hawai’i Islands treasured places. Our intent was to empower these groups to continue their good work and to enable and encourage kuleana and the building of community for these lands.  The County has made good use of these funds. But in the last 5 years there has only been 1 group that has obtained these funds. WHY?  This process needs to be improved. It has now been placed under the care of the PONC Commission. This should help get these funds to community groups!  I was a commissioner and these volunteers are strong advocates for land conservation and maintenance. Get in touch with your PONC Commissioner and ask their help to obtain Maintenance Funds or how to suggest lands for preservation in your community.

Here’s the link to find out who is your representative.   In the above map you can see there are 14 properties that have been purchased and 14 groups that can use assistance. If you are one of these groups we encourage you to apply to the Public Access and Open Space Commission (PONC). The County can do better to enable and empower our communities and the PONC Commission seems to agree. The 2018 Report to the Mayor contains:



PROPERTIES ACQUIRED since 2006: 14  


LAND ACQUIRED: 4,428 acres of land already acquired suggested by community members

MONEY SPENT: County of Hawaii 2% Land Fund         $27,389,268.

                             Grants from Matching funds*               $8,764,083.

                             Private funds:                                         $2,000,000

*From US Fish and Wildlife to protect lands for Endangered Species, State Legacy Lands $7,434,083 actually received, $1,330,000. Pending from Legacy Lands for Wai’opae, Puna.

*MATCHING FUNDS- My opinion: The highest and best use of 2% of taxpayer’s funds is to use the 2% Land Fund to get dollar for dollar matching funds. To date the County has only received 1 dollar for every 3 dollars spent for taxpayers OR only 32% of the money spent is from grants.   The ultimate goal would be to get dollar for dollar matching funds.

PROPERTIES SUBMITTED TO THE PONC COMMISSION TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ACQUISITION since December 28, 2016: This information came from the Comprehensive List of Properties



  1. The Save Our Lands Citizen’s Committee Petition Initiative drive collected almost 10,000 signatures from April to July of 2006. This was during Harry Kim’s first term. Mayor Kim was adamantly against setting aside 2% of property taxes for land acquisition, even though this is 1.5% of the total income for the County.   County Clerk Connie Kiriu and County Counsel Lincoln Ashida disqualified almost 6,000 signatures for leaving off Pl, St. or Rd, or if husband and wife used ditto marks for their address when signing under each other or if the year was left off, (we collected signatures from May to July so it was only during 2005 which made the year implied and irrelevant).
  2. We needed 4,400 signatures, but because of the disqualifications we didn’t get enough. The County Council decided to place the ballot measure on the ballot for 2006 anyway.
  3. Despite the Corporation Counsel submitting confusing ballot language using double negatives, the amendment to the Code passed by 63% of voters who voted on the issue to become part of the Hawaii County Code.
  4. In 2008- Mayor Kenoi and the County Council suspended deposits to the Fund for two years as his very first piece of legislation after taking office. The Save Our Lands Citizens’ Committee pointed out that there were more than 260 funded but unfilled job in his budget, but Mayor Kenoi failed to reinstate payments to the 2% Land Fund after cutting these budget entries totaling approximately $14 million.
  5. In 2010, the Charter Commission put the Land Fund on the ballot again, but only as the 1% Land Fund.  Again the Land Fund passed by 63% of voters, who voted on the measure.
  6. In 2012, to honor all the people who signed the petitions and worked so hard over the years, we felt we needed to put the 2% Land Fund back on the ballot as a Charter amendment, together with a 1/4% Maintenance Fund. We wanted to make sure that the Council and Mayor couldn’t stop fund deposits and a charter amendment can only be undone by a vote of the people.  Again, 63% of voters approved both measures. As part of the 2% Land Fund legislation, every property obtained with our taxpayer funds shall have a covenant that runs with the land stating that these lands are to be held in perpetuity for the citizens of the County of Hawaii and cannot be sold, traded, mortgaged etc.  This has already blocked a potential land trade with the State of Hawaii.
  7. The Maintenance Fund was clarified in the Hawaii County Code in 2016 to allow the PONC Commission to review Stewardship Grants and to recommend which grants to approve to the Director of Finance.


GRASS ROOTS ORGANIZING PROCESS to pass the 3 ballot measures:

  • During the Petition Initiative process, the Save Our Lands Citizen Committee had more than 100 people who collected signatures of more than 50 signatures each in 2006.
  • The Committee has a 3,000 personal email list which we use to inform our supporters or if we need emails sent to elected officials, or to ask people to show up for public meetings or to lobbying their Council members.   These 3,000 people were asked to contact their email list. They represent about 10% of the voting public on the island. (There have been approximately 100,000 voters registered for the County of Hawaii, usually about 33,000 of these registered voters actually vote, therefore 3,000 supporters is 10% of the vote.)

Citizens have proposed 180 properties for acquisition:

  • Puna area: 16 properties
  • South Hilo area: 16 properties
  • North Hilo: 7 properties
  • Hamakua: 26 properties
  • North Kohala: 29 properties
  • South Kohala: 18 properties
  • North Kona: 27 properties
  • South Kona: 14 properties
  • Ka’u: 27 properties

The Community recommends a property to the Public Access and Open Space Commission, here is the process and links to the application:

THE HAWAII COUNTY CHARTER AND THE HAWAII COUNTY CODE: which regulates the 2% Land Fund (PONC) and the PONC Maintenance Fund go to:

Submitted by Debbie Hecht, Campaign Coordinator Save Our Lands Citizen’s Committee

A Cardiac Care Unit for the Big Island of Hawai’i

Updated January 15,2017

THE PROBLEM and the NEED:  The GOLDEN 2 HOUR WINDOW FOR CARE:          People with cardiac problems- heart attacks and strokes must be airlifted to hospitals in Honolulu or to Maui Memorial to be treated.   There is a 2 hour window when patients need to be treated in order to expect a full recovery.  Think about where you live on the Big Island.  At least from my home it would take 45 minutes to get to Kona Community Hospital Emergency Room, then the time to be diagnosed and then get the helicopter and then the 45 minute + time to Oahu, getting checked in and a cardiologist hopefully is at the hospital and you need to be seen, an Operating Room hopefully is available.  Mayor Harry Kim has had 3 heart attacks,  two County Councils Chairs Dominic Yagong and Pete Hoffmann have all had to be airlifted off island to be treated for heart attacks.  Who do you know?

STATISTICS FROM 2016 FOR KONA COMMUNITY HOSPITAL supplied to Representative Nicole Lowen from Judy Donovan who is the Regional Director of Marketing and Strategic Planning at Kona Community Hospital and the Kohala Hospital. She thanked Dr. Rosen for his help in compiling the following numbers:

“We were able to get the following information from the HHIC database for calendar year 2016.  Mahalo to Dr. Rosen for here assistance in pulling this data together.

BREAKDOWN OF CASES and TRANSFERS:  Case definition = DRG Invasive Cardiology (Author Note: DRG is an insurance code)

  1. Total Cardiac Cases at Kona Community Hospital (KCH) = 375
  2. Cases admitted and discharged at KCH = 218 = 58%
  3. Cases transferred to other neighbor island hospitals = 16 = 4% (Maui Memorial)
  4. Cases transferred to Oahu hospitals = 151 = 38%**

**Note: approximately 40% of transfers to Oahu were Kaiser patients.  Some of those patients may have been admitted to KCH had they been otherwise insured.” Note: These patients were airlifted to Kaiser Moanalua, Queens, Pali Momi or Straub).


REPORT FOR A CARDIAC CARE FOR WEST HAWAII  Debbie Hecht reporting June 2016

A Cardiac Care Unit is needed on the Big Island. Several well-known community members have been airlifted to Queens Hospital in Honolulu or Maui Memorial Hospital with heart problems or strokes: Mayor Kim, Council Chair Pete Hoffmann, and OHA Representative Bob Lindsey

Before going to Kona, I discussed a cardiac care unit for West Hawaii with Jon Luft, Architect and Teri Oelrich, medical planner at NBBJ Architects, who specialize in planning and designing hospitals. They are currently involved in building a one million square foot, state-of-the-art replacement hospital for Loma Linda University Medical Center in Loma Linda, California. Jon lived on the Big Island in the 1980’s and Teri has also worked in Hawaii. Teri thought that a hybrid Operating Room (OR) and Catheterization Lab would be a first step to assessing the need/use of a Cardiac Care Unit. She was helpful in explaining the process for a Certificate of Need. From these discussions, I learned that hospitals make money on their operating rooms. North Hawaii Community Hospital is booked solid with orthopedic and gastroenterology procedures. Queens Medical has taken over the operations of North Hawaii Community Hospital. There is currently no facility or any cardiologists to staff a dedicated cardiac care unit for West Hawaii. We came to the conclusion that Kona Community Hospital (KCH) was the best location for a Cardiac Care unit. I also learned there is additional, unused land adjacent to the Kona Community Hospital for expansion if a full-scale cardiac care unit is needed in the future. I also learned that here is a 2-hour window where a patient must receive intervential care to recover completely. By the time a cardiac victim would get from their home to KCH is evaluated and airlifted to Maui or Oahu, much more than two hours have elapsed- 4 hours is a more likely estimate. All of the people I talked to expressed the need for a new hospital closer to the Kona International Airport.

Kona Community Hospital has one cardiologist listed on their list of specialists, Dr. Michael Dang who comes periodically from Honolulu. Dr. Larry Derbes has applied for privileges at KCH and is an interventional cardiologist in private practice in Kona. He agrees that a Catheterization Lab to do stents and ablations and to treat strokes is very necessary for West Hawaii, would save lives and result in better outcomes and quality of life for cardiac patients. He is interested in helping to establish, and in working at a Cardiac Care Facility. He also outlined the challenges of a doctor trying to make a living on the Big Island because of the Medicare reimbursement rate, which is roughly 93% of the actual cost of living. He was working in Waimea, but is closing that office and moving his practice to downtown Kona, approximately 20 minutes from KCH.

Jay Kreuzer, is the CEO of KCH, and has also been a cardiac patient. He said that the problem with the the Medicare reimbursement rate of only 93% of the actual cost, is compounded by Hawaii Medical Services Association (HMSA-the State of Hawaii’s biggest healthcare insurer) compensates at only 110% of the Medicare Reimbursement Rate as compared with most mainland insurance companies which reimburse at 130% of the Medicare rate. These explanations further illustrate the negative impacts of insufficient reimbursement rates for attracting and retaining good doctors on the islands. He told me that there is an airlift almost every day from KCH to either Queens in Honolulu or Maui Memorial and they are usually for heart or stroke patients. He confided that Queens and KCH are in negotiations to acquire KCH.   He said the difficulty with a Cardiac Care unit is finding cardiologists to staff the clinics, “There is no sense in building it if we don’t have the staff.” If Queens acquires KCH, he believes more doctors would be available for rotations at KCH for specialties. Queens’ strategy would be to enable more patients to stay on the outer islands instead of going to Oahu because their beds are always full. He also told me that the recent heavy rains had caused extensive flooding and damage to one of the Operating Rooms, which might represent an opportunity to remodel for a hybrid OR and Cath Lab.

I also met with Dr. Frank Sayre, Chair of the Board for the West Hawaii Regional Hospital Board of Directors, which oversees Kona Community Hospital and the North Kohala Community Hospital. He reiterated what Jay Kreuzer said about why it is difficult to keep good doctors. He told me that he had discussed setting up a “funded chair” for specialists (similar to academic chairs) as a stipend to keep doctors on the island. This discussion was between Frank and a staff member from the Hawaii Community Foundation. Frank and I also discussed setting up an annuity pool with the Kona Hospital Foundation to fund several stipends for cardiac specialists who are willing to be “on call” at the hospital. We talked about the possible need to hire a grant writer and/ or approaching several donors interested in better cardiac care on the island.


  1. A HYBRID CATHETERIZATION LAB/ OPERATING ROOM FOR KONA COMMUNITY HOSPITAL: According to the medical planner, Teri Oelrich, affiliated with NBBJ architects, many rural areas first create a hybrid Catheterization Lab out of an existing Operating Room.       She estimated that this could be accomplished for approximately $2 million for equipment only; remodeling would be an additional cost.
  2. The recent flooding of the Operating Room at KCH presents an opportunity to remodel the Operating Room and accommodate Cath Lab equipment.
  3. STAFFING: Funding mechanisms could be established through donations to the Hawaii Community Foundation or the Kona Community Hospital Foundation
    1. Establish a funded “chair position” for each specialty that is needed with a yearly stipend.
    2. OR establish a pool of money as an annuity that will provide a stipend each year for several specialists.


  1. COMPILE STATISTICS to show the need for the Catheterization Lab by using billing for the last 2 years, or assessing airlifted patients as to why they were being carried off-island. The goal of this would be to establish the need for a Catheterization Lab or other specialties and give direction to the hospital and the Board as to what doctors, staff and facilities would be needed. This is important because:
    1. With this data KCH would know what specialties and specialists were needed to treat and allow patients on the island to recover, which is a huge benefit for better outcomes for the patient and keeps interventions in the 2-hour window. In the event of a Queen’s acquisition, it would expedite a facilities upgrade and staff hiring.
    2. Having this data available would help determine the best strategies on how to repair the flood damaged ER (possibly into a cath lab hybrid).
    3. Having the data could illustrate the need for a cath lab, and support the Board and CEO’s strategic planning.
    1. Consider hiring a grant writer to apply for grants from the Hawaii Community Foundation, HMSA Foundation, Kona Community Chamber of Commerce, and Rotary of Kona, Heart Association, Bill Healy Foundation, Ironman Foundation etc.
    2. Establish an annuity to provide stipends of $50,000 for one or two on call cardiologists or a visiting cardiologist for KCH. For example: An annuity could be set up for $1,000,000 to invest at 5% to raise $50,000 per year for a stipend to pay a cardiologist to be on-call in addition to their private practice.

BRIEF RESUMES FOR CONTRIBUTORS (in alphabetical order):

 LAWRENCE DERBES, M.D., F.A.C.C., is a board-certified cardiologist who has been practicing since 1990. Dr. Derbes graduated from Vanderbilt University with his bachelor’s degree and Louisiana State University, where he obtained his degree in medicine. Subsequently, he completed fellowships in three different locations, Louisiana, California, and Florida, in cardiac electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, and internal medicine, respectively. Dr. Derbes moved from the mainland to Oahu in 2006, where he was an interventional cardiologist specializing in electrophysiology. He has extensive experience performing cardiac catheterizations and other interventional procedures, including stent and pacemaker placement. In addition to working in various hospitals on Oahu, he also practiced cardiology in two offices. Dr. Derbes moved to Waimea in September of 2013 in order to strictly practice preventive care. Concerned about patients’ post-surgery lifestyles and follow up care, Dr. Derbes’ practice integrates both lifestyle and conventional medicine in order to mediate existing cardiac problems as well as chronic illness and conditions like high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Dr. Derbes has applied for privileges at Kona Community Hospital. His TedX talk can be found at  He is now in practice with Ali’i Health in Kona.

DEBBIE HECHT worked for the County Council for the County of Hawaii as a legislative specialist. She was the campaign coordinator, from 2005 to 2012, to set aside 2% of Hawaii County property taxes to purchase open space and parklands. To date the Public Access and Open Space and Natural Resources Fund has preserved over 3,000 acres of land for $32 million+, with over $7 million from matching funds. With Councilmember Brenda Ford, she wrote the legislation for the 2% Land Fund charter amendment and the 2% Land Fund Maintenance charter amendment to maintain lands that have been acquired with Fund monies. Both charter amendments were approved by 65% of voters. She is a heart patient and has had 2 stents and 2 ablations over the last 5 years and would like to be able to safely live on the Big Island. She is grateful to have survived 6 years on the island without being properly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. She hopes to help provide care for others who may want to remain on the island with heart and cardio health issues and help to provide the facilities to educate people about better heart health through diet and exercise.

JAY KREUZER, MHA, FACHE – The HHSC West Hawaii Regional Board of Directors named Jay Kreuzer as the new Regional Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the West Hawaii region, which includes Kona Community Hospital (KCH) and Kohala Hospital. He began work March 14, 2011. Jay Kreuzer has more than 30 years of progressive, proven health care leadership experience. He previously served as the Executive Vice President of Resurrection Health Care, a not-for-profit health system located in Chicago, that includes eight hospitals, seven nursing homes, five independent living facilities, and three assisted living facilities. He concurrently was the Chief Executive Officer for West Suburban Medical Center, a facility with $520 million in gross revenues, five ambulatory sites, 325 member medical staff, 250 volunteers, foundation and physician/hospital organization (PHO).

Prior to this, he was president of St. Francis Hospital and Health System, a 412-bed acute care hospital ranked in the top 100 hospitals nationally. He also served as the President of Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center, a 220-bed acute care hospital in rural Southern Illinois.

Kreuzer earned a Bachelor of Science degree at Valparaiso University in Indiana and received a Master in Health Administration at Xavier University in Ohio. He is a Fellow in the American College of Healthcare Executives. He moved to the Big Island with his wife, Jean (a school nurse for 20 years).

JON LUFT, Architect, LEED AP: Jon is a broadly experienced architect whose portfolio includes projects at every scale and complexity across multiple market sectors, project types and construction delivery methods. His professional experience spans almost 40 years and involves hands-on experience in a wide range of domestic and international projects in health care, hospitality, higher and K-12 education, municipal and public safety, commercial and high rise buildings, public transit, urban mixed-use and residential projects. Jon is a licensed architect in California, Arizona, Hawaii and Massachusetts and his recent practice has focused on large, acute healthcare projects in the California marketplace. He is skilled at leading large, multi-disciplinary teams on challenging projects, from planning and design through construction and project closeout. Jon has a proven ability to effectively manage complex projects that have critical design, construction, phasing, and operational requirements while fostering an atmosphere of teamwork and open communication. Jon has developed his professional experience among the worlds leading design firms including Cesar Pelli & Associates, Skidmore Owings & Merrill, HDR, HKS, Leo A Daly and currently with NBBJ, Los Angeles.  Recent acute healthcare work has included design and implementation for the new Emergency Department at Scripps Mercy, San Diego, CA, and as senior project manager for replacement hospitals at Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, CA ($450M, 500,000sf, Design Build)), San Gorgonio Memorial Hospital, Banning, CA ($120M, 120,000sf, CM Multiple-Prime), and currently for the Campus Transformation Project at Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA ($1B, 1,000,000sf, Negotiated w/GMP).

TERI OELRICH, RN, BSN, MBA, leads the Healthcare Analytics at NBBJ, the second-largest healthcare architecture firm in the world and named one of the most innovative by Fast Company. She has a clinical background in nursing, working in a variety of settings, including orthopedics, medical-surgical units, and adult and pediatric intensive care units. She also holds an MBA, and coupled with her operational knowledge, she brings a valuable mix of clinical and business acumen to healthcare projects. Teri is available to the client from planning to completion and beyond. She works closely with our medical planners and Lean consultants to “right size” projects based on a rigorous analysis of both historical data across healthcare systems and the client-specific data. Teri uses the data-analysis process to assist our clients with determining what they need to meet projected clinical case volumes as opposed to what they want based purely on today’s environment. This process of using analytics to drive planning and design is increasingly important in the current data-driven healthcare industry. Her recent work includes planning for University of Washington Medical Center, Sutter Health Regional Ambulatory Care Master Plan, and Legacy Emanuel Medical Center Intensive Care and Surgery Replacement.

She is the Co-President for the Center for Women’s Health at OHSU and is also on the Foundation Board of Trustees for Legacy Meridian Park. She is also a previous presenter at conferences for ASHE, American Institute of Architects (AIA), Healthcare Design (HCD), and National Association of Children’s Hospitals and Related Institutions (NACHRI).

FRANK SAYRE, Chairman of the Board, West Hawaii Regional Hospital Board of Directors, which oversees Kona Community Hospital and North Kohala Community Hospital. Sayre joined the board in July 2014. He was previously a member of the KCH surgical staff and HHSC’s Management Advisory Committee for West Hawai’i. He is a volunteer Board member for the Peoples Advocacy for Trails Hawai’i, and the Pu’u Wa’a Wa’a Advisory Council. He is a founding board member of the Daniel Sayre Memorial Foundation along with his wife, Laura Mallery Sayre, which has donated more that $700,000 for equipment to first responders on the Big Island. Dr. Sayre was a dentist in private practice in Kailua Kona for many years.


There is an ongoing problem to keeping doctors in Hawaii that is outlined in the report.  There is more information needed on how to best serve the Community.

Please contact me to become part of the movement to have community needs met by the Kona Community Hospital.  Mahalo!    Debbie Hecht

Costa Rica 2.2018



THE COSTA RICAN ADVENTURE with 18 fellow travelers:   We landed  in San Jose and stayed in the adjacent town of Alajuela. The next day we travelled  to the village of La Fortuna with stops at Baldi Hot Springs,  a hike at Volcan Arenal with a nest of baby hummingbirds, a view of Lake Arenal and a gorgeous sunset.  Day 3 river rafting with alligators, iguanas and an old homestead, 500 steps down (and up) to Fortuna Falls, and sunset on Volcan Arenal from the plaza in La Fortuna.  Then a Boat Trip across lake Arenal to the village of Monteverde and the Monteverde Inn with a 2+ mile hiking trail, waterfalls, a slot canyon, a shy aguti and a night hike with an enthusiastic, knowledgable guide where we saw lots of animals, tangled with some poison ivy but only got a  photo of an ugly scorpion.  A hike into Monteverde and a tour of an Orchid Garden with a knowledgable young woman.  Next day to Selvatura Park where we saw coatamundi, hummingbirds, butterflies and gorgeous rainforest plants and flowers and hiked the sky bridges high above the rainforest floor.

Then we took Ted’s Wild Ride over the mountains and across a river of crocodiles to the town of Manuel Antonio at the Pacific Coast.  We went snorkeling and I saw a few starfish I had never seen.  The following day we hiked right from our hotel, Manuel Antonio, and into the  Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio.    Marvin Parra was our amazing guide.  He was enthusiastic and took some great photos through his scope!  He is credited with the close ups of the hanging bats (look at those eyes), the land crab, the Howler monkey, the iguana, the dragonfly, another type of bat and the sloth.   I found a capuchin monkey that was fun to follow on the hike down to the first and second beaches, then on to Gamelas (the Twins) Beach.

The last day in  Manuel Antonio we went past the town of Quepos and the old Port area, to the mangroves and took a boat ride with another wonderful naturalist.  We saw a pygmy owl,  4 kinds of herons (blue heron, spoon bill rosetta heron, bitterns, bare-throated tiger heron), lots of birds, a boa constrictor in a tree, an iguana and the oddest Capuchin monkey who’s expressions were so human!  He went from grumpy, to worried to pissed off to rebellious.

Most notable on this trip?   The happy Costa Rican people!  They have no military, but spend their money on health care and education.  Their major income producing industry is tourism and they are very environmentally conscious.  They use fast growing trees as fence post, have small cars, recycle and seem to have a lot of fun with their friends and family in their beautiful country.   I loved speaking Spanish.  PURA VIDA!

NOTE:  This was a grand experiment to minimize photographic equipment, so All PHOTOS were TAKEN WITH AN I phone.   PLEASE DO NOT USE PHOTOS WITHOUT PERMISSION OR GIVING CREDIT.


I'm human

“You’re really pretty for a black girl.”

“ You look just like a china doll.”

“Don’t sit next to her, she probably smells like rice.”

“Don’t try to Jew me down on the price.”

If someone said this to you, how would you feel?  We all make jokes at the expense of others. Sarcasm is especially harmful because it puts someone down for a laugh. These statements hurt, degrade and belittle people and attempt to reduce their importance in the world.  This is “othering”. I believe that we must start to identify and exorcise our unconscious privilege, which presents as racial slurs and microagressions.  Imagine if we were curious about other people, their families, values, thoughts, feelings and cultures and religions. Imagine what we would learn about the cultures within our society if we celebrated differences and practiced inclusiveness. THE GREAT CHALLENGE IS HOW TO HEAL THE RACIAL DIVIDE IN OUR COUNTRY.

A racial slur is also called a microagression, which is a statement, action, or incident  of indirect, subtle, or unintentional discrimination against members of a marginalized group such as a racial or ethnic minority.  Research shows that we all inherit and learn the racial, gender, and sexual orientation biases of our homes and cultures.  Racist, sexist and heterosexist attitudes, beliefs and behaviors have indoctrinated us. Most of these behaviors are unconscious. We must all take responsibility for what we say and the affect it has on other human beings.

As I read the statements by minority students below, I felt gut punched.  I found myself cringing.  I felt ashamed as I recognized things I had said. These are examples of the unconsciousness of our society and the unconsciousness of privilege. If you heard these comments on a daily basis, you would start to view yourself as a second-class person, someone who is not “good enough”, who doesn’t measure up? These are examples of “othering” and marginalizing of our fellow human beings.

Statements to Black Students:

  • When people think it’s weird that I listen to Carrie Underwood.
  • So what does your hair look like today? She said as she pulled off my hat without my permission.
  • You don’t act like a normal black person ya know?
  • Courtney I never see you as a black girl. Answer: You don’t act like a normal black person ya know?
  • The limited representation of my race in your classroom does not make me the voice of all Black People.
  • When standing next to my Mom: Why is your daughter so white?
  • You’re really pretty for a dark skin girl.
  • Why do you sound white?

Statements to Asian students:

  • So. you’re Chinese right?
  • You’re not really Asian.
  • So, what do you guys speak in Japan? Asian?
  • Not your fucking china doll.
  • Statement overheard by an Asian student: This girl sitting next to me move, to sit closer to someone she’s talking to, and the white guy whispers loudly that she moved because she smells like rice.
  • Can you read this? He showed me a Japanese character on his phone.
  • Can you see as much as white people? You know, because of your eyes?

Statements to mixed race students:

  • Question: What are you? Answer: HUMAN. Being bi-racial doesn’t make me a “what’.
  • So, like, what are you?
  • You don’t speak Spanish?
  • Statement to student of mixed race who looks white: No, you’re white.

Statements by a  Hispanic student:

  • Just because I’m Mexican I shouldn’t be the 1st choice for the role of Dora the Explorer in a high school skit.
  • When I gave a speech about racism, the emcee introduced me as Jaime Garcia. My name is Jaime Rodriguez. Not all Latinos have the last name Garcia.

Look at pictures of the students holding placards quoting microagressions. Notice how their expressions increase the impact of the microagression:  From Kiyun Kim, Racial Microaggressions, December 2103

RACIAL SLURS AS ACTIONS: Actions  can marginalize, degrade and belittle people. Microagressions can be racial, gender, religion and sexual orientation  actions.   Many of these comments or actions appear to be innocent, but taken as everyday occurrence they can impact marginalized groups and  affect their standard of living by creating inequities in health care, police treatment, aspirations for young adults, education, housing and employment opportunities.

Racial Microaggression:
• A White man or woman clutches their purse or checks their wallet as a Black or Latino man approaches or passes them. (Hidden message: You and your group are criminals.).
• An Asian American, born and raised in the United States, is complimented for speaking “good English.” (Hidden message: You are not a true American. You are a perpetual foreigner in your own country.)
• A Black couple is seated at a table in the restaurant next to the kitchen despite there being other empty and more desirable tables located at the front. (Hidden message: You are a second-class citizen and undeserving of first-class treatment.)

Gender Microaggressions:
• an assertive female manager is labeled as a “bitch,” while her male counterpart is described as “a forceful leader.” (Hidden message: Women should be passive and allow men to be the decision makers.)
• A female physician wearing a stethoscope is mistaken as a nurse. (Hidden message: Women should occupy nurturing and not decision-making roles. Women are less capable than men).
• Whistles or catcalls are heard from men as a woman walks down the street. (Hidden message: Your body/appearance is for the enjoyment of men. You are a sex object.)

Sexual Orientation Microaggressions:
• A Young person uses the term “gay” to describe a movie that she didn’t like. (Hidden message: Being gay is associated with negative and undesirable characteristics.)
• A lesbian client in therapy reluctantly discloses her sexual orientation to a straight therapist by stating she is “into women.” The therapist indicates he is not shocked by the disclosure because he once had a client who was “into dogs.” (Hidden message: Same-sex attraction is abnormal and deviant.)
• Two gay men hold hands in public and are told not to flaunt their sexuality. (Hidden message: Same-sex displays of affection are abnormal and offensive. Keep it private and to yourselves.)

Religion, disability, and social class may also be reflected as behavioral microagressions:

  • When bargaining over the price of an item, a storeowner says to a customer, “Don’t try to Jew me down.” (Hidden message: Jews are stingy and money-grubbing.)
    • A blind man reports that people often raise their voices when speaking to him. He responds by saying, “Please don’t raise your voice; I can hear you perfectly well.” (Hidden message: A person with a disability is defined as lesser in all aspects of physical and mental functioning).
    • The outfit worn by a TV reality-show mom is described as “classless and trashy.” (Hidden message: Lower-class people are tasteless and unsophisticated.)

What can you do?  Don’t expect this to be comfortable.  It’s important work!  Growth seldom is comfortable and this is a growing process. Notice your microagressions. Read people’s faces when you are speaking in order to gauge their reactions. Speak up and ask for clarification about what they think or feel. Reach for understanding and empathy. Challenge the hurtful statements of others and start the difficult conversations to heal the racial divide. It’s up to each of us to create a more civil society with social justice for everyone.

  1. “Othering 101” 
  2. The Problem of Othering: Towards Inclusiveness and Belonging
  3. KIYUN KIM Racial Microaggressions, December 2013.
  4. 21 Racial Microaggressions You Hear on a Daily Basis:
  5. From Microaggressions: More Than Just Race from Psychology Today.

NOTE:  Picture at top of story is taken from KIYUN KIM                                                             Racial Microaggressions, December 2013.

GUN VIOLENCE PROTECTION Take Action, Issues, Polls & Statistics 5.2018

Guns have changed shouldn't our laws_

The Second Amendment of the Constitution was written in 1791. These are the guns that were used: Brown Bess Musket,Charleville Musket, American-made Muskets, Long Rifles, Pattern 1776 Infantry Rifle and the Ferguson Rifle.  The 2nd Amendment reads: “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”

TAKE ACTION! Ask Congressmen and Senators to introduce and support GUN VIOLENCE PROTECTION LEGISLATION and GET PLEDGES FROM CANDIDATES for their support: 

  1. Background checks on all firearm purchases (guns and ammunition) in gun stores, gun shows and online with a 10 day waiting period.
  2. All new guns must be sold with fingerprint recognition. For a gun to be used, the trigger must recognize the fingerprint of its registered owner, which would eliminate crimes with stolen guns and potentially some suicides.
  3. People on the DO NOT FLY LIST cannot buy guns.
  4. People who have been convicted of domestic violence or have a restraining order by a spouse/ partner could not buy guns.
  5. People who are mentally ill could not buy guns.
  6. Assault weapons should be banned along high capacity magazines and clips andbump stocks and any other equipment, alteration, or modification that would increase a firearm’s capacity for ammunition or rate of fire
  7. Silencers should be illegal. What if the people in Las Vegas couldn’t hear the guns over the music?
  8. To purchase a firearm or ammunition you must be a US citizen, be 21 years of age and take a nationally approved education class and  pass a national licensing  testing of knowledge from the class and proficiency.

Not sure who to contact? Go to and find your state on the interactive map:


The National Rifle Association (NRA) is the strongest lobby in Washington DC. Since the Supreme Court Ruling on Citizen’s United Corportations can now donate to political campaigns. The NRA also donates heavily to the Republican Party and other Political Action Committees (PAC).

HOW MUCH HAS THE NATIONAL RIFLE ASSOCIATION DONATED TO YOUR CONGRESS PEOPLE? CHECK THIS INTERACTIVE CHART. Since 1998, the National Rifle Association has donated $3,533,294 to current members of Congress. Explore below to see how much money has been donated to members of Congress in your state:


  1. Rep. Ken Calvert (R)$42,550
  2. Rep. Darrell Issa (R)$29,900
  3. Rep. Duncan Hunter (R)$24,850
  4. Rep. Devin Nunes (R)$22,950
  5. Rep. David Valadao (R)$19,400
  6. Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R)$18,000
  7. Rep. Kevin McCarthy (R)$15,450
  8. Rep. Tom McClintock (R)$13,950
  9. Rep. Duncan D Hunter (R)$13,000
  10. Rep. Ed Royce (R)$11,970
  11. Rep. Susan Brooks (R)$6,000
  12. Rep. Paul Cook (R)$6,000
  13. Rep. Doug LaMalfa (R)$6,000
  14. Rep. Mike Thompson (D)$4,000
  15. Rep. Mimi Walters (R)$4,000
  16. Rep. Steve Knight (R)$3,000

WHAT/ WHO  FUNDS THE NRA? Prior to the passage of the McClure-Volkmer Act signed by President Reagan 1986, interstate ammunition sales by common carrier to private individuals were banned and records were maintained of ammunition sales. McClure-Volkmer ended these limited controls on interstate — and opened up a new financial funding stream for the NRA.
Today the NRA receives millions of dollars from online sales of ammunition, high-capacity ammunition magazines, and other accessories through the Round-Up Program, created by top NRA benefactor Larry Potterfield. Potterfield is founder and head of MidwayUSA, which claims to stock “[j]ust about everything for shooting, reloading, gunsmithing and hunting,” including ammunition and high-capacity ammunition magazines. The Round-Up Program encourages buyers to “round-up” their purchase to the nearest dollar with the difference going to the NRA.​’   ‘Alleged Aurora mass shooter James Holmes’ ability to reportedly purchase more than six thousand rounds of ammunition online without any record-keeping is the direct result of Congressional passage of the National Rifle Association’s flagship bill of the 1980s: the Firearms Owners’ Protection Act.

HOW THE GUN INDUSTRY FUNNELS TENS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO THE NRA: “The bulk of the group’s money now comes in the form of contributions, grants, royalty income, and advertising, much of it originating from gun industry sources.
Since 2005, the gun industry and its corporate allies have given between $20 million and $52.6 million to it through the NRA Ring of Freedom sponsor program. Donors include firearm companies like Midway USA, Springfield Armory Inc, Pierce Bullet Seal Target Systems, and Beretta USA Corporation. Other supporters from the gun industry include Cabala’s, Sturm Rugar & Co, and Smith & Wesson.
The NRA also made $20.9 million — about 10 percent of its revenue — from selling advertising to industry companies marketing products in its many publications in 2010, according to the IRS Form 990.
Additionally, some companies donate portions of sales directly to the NRA. Crimson Trace, which makes laser sights, donates 10 percent of each sale to the NRA. Taurus buys an NRA membership for everyone who buys one of their guns. Sturm Rugar gives $1 to the NRA for each gun sold, which amounts to millions. The NRA’s revenues are intrinsically linked to the success of the gun business.
The NRA Foundation also collects hundreds of thousands of dollars from the industry, which it then gives to local-level organizations for training and equipment purchases.”









AUSTRALIA’S SUCCESSFUL GUN CONTROL–An Australian named Martin Bryant murdered 35 people with a semiautomatic rifle in Port Arthur in 1996, in the deadliest mass shooting in Australian history,


  1. banned automatic and semiautomatic firearms,
  2. adopted new licensing requirements,
  3. established a national firearms registry, and
  4. instituted a 28-day waiting period for gun purchases
  5. bought (at market value) and destroyed more than 600,000 civilian-owned firearms

HOW? in a program that cost half a billion dollars and was funded by raising taxes on healthcare. The entire overhaul took only months to implement.

THE RESULTS: THE US HAS 29.7 GUN DEATHS PER MILLION PEOPLE AUSTRALIA HAS 1.4 GUN DEATHS PER MILLION PEOPLE. The number of mass shootings in Australia—dropped from 13 in the 18-year period before 1996 to zero after the Port Arthur massacre. Between 1995 and 2006, gun-related homicides and suicides in the country dropped by 59 percent and 65 percent, respectively, though these declines appear to have since leveled off. Two academics who have studied the impact of the reform initiative estimate that the gun-buyback program saves at least 200 lives each year, according to The New York Times. In a multinational study for the Small Arms Survey, Marcus Wilson cited the Australian case as an example of the most efficacious type of government effort to control arms and measurably reduce armed violence, in which weapons-collection programs are combined with legislative reform, campaigns to shift public opinion, and civil-society involvement.

AUSTRALIA HOMICIDE RATE 1 DEATH FOR EVERY 100,000 PEOPLE, THE U.S. IS 10 PER EVERY 100,000: With Australia’s population steadily increasing, the nation’s homicide incident rate has fallen even more than the number of homicides — from 1.6 per 100,000 in 1995-96 to 1 per 100,000 in 2013-2014, according to a government report on crime trends. That was the lowest homicide incident rate at the time in 25 years, as we mentioned earlier.

“In the seven years before the NFA (1989-1995), the average annual firearm suicide death rate per 100,000 was 2.6 (with a yearly range of 2.2 to 2.9); in the seven years after the buyback was fully implemented (1998-2004), the average annual firearm suicide rate was 1.1 (yearly range 0.8 to 1.4).”

“In the seven years before the NFA, the average annual firearm homicide rate per 100,000 was .43 (range .27 to .60) while for the seven years post NFA, the average annual firearm homicide rate was .25 (range .16 to .33).”

“[T]he drop in firearm deaths was largest among the type of firearms most affected by the buyback.”

The authors, however, noted that “no study has explained why gun deaths were falling, or why they might be expected to continue to fall.” That poses difficulty in trying to definitively determine the impact of the law, they write.

“Whether or not one wants to attribute the effects as being due to the law, everyone should be pleased with what happened in Australia after the NFA — the elimination of firearm massacres (at least up to the present) and an immediate, and continuing, reduction in firearm suicide and firearm homicide,” the authors write.


HOW TO PREVENT GUN DEATHS- WHERE THE EXPERTS AND THE PUBLIC AGREE-       A POLL The most popular measures in our survey — policies like universal background checks and keeping guns from convicted stalkers — were supported by more than 85 percent of registered voters. Even the least popular idea, a law that would limit gun sales to people who had to demonstrate a “genuine need” for the weapon, was favored by nearly 50 percent.

What Works and Doesn’t Work in Reducing Gun Deaths

Suggested Policy Effectiveness Public Support
Requiring all sellers to run background checks on anyone who buys a gun. 7.3 86%
Preventing sales of all firearms to people who have been convicted of violent misdemeanors, including domestic assaults. 7.1 83%
Preventing sales of all firearms to people who have been convicted of stalking another person 6.5 85%
Requiring all gun owners to possess a license for their firearm. 6.4 78%
Requiring all sellers to run background checks on anyone who buys ammunition. 6.4 72%
Banning the sale and ownership of all semi-automatic and automatic firearms. 6.1 63%
Preventing sales of all firearms to people who have been reported as dangerous to law enforcement by a mental health provider. 6.0 87%
Requiring all owners to report lost or stolen firearms. 6.0 88%
Banning the sale and ownership of all ammunition magazines with a capacity greater than 10 bullets. 5.8 63%
Requiring that all firearms be recorded in a national registry. 5.7 70%
Expanding screening and treatment for the mentally ill. 5.6 86%
Requiring that all gun buyers demonstrate a a ”genuine need” for a gun, such as a law enforcement job or hunting. 5.6 49%
Requiring all guns to microstamp each bullet with a mark that uniquely matches the gun and bullet. 5.5 65%
Increasing minimum penalties for people found possessing firearms illegally. 5.4 80%
Requiring gun dealers to keep, retain and report all gun records and sales to the Federal government. 5.4 80%
Banning the sale and ownership of assault rifles or similar firearms. 5.0 67%
Requiring all gun owners to register their fingerprints. 5.0 72%
Preventing sales of all firearms and ammunition to anyone considered to be a “known or suspected terrorist” by the F.B.I. 4.9 89%
Requiring a mandatory waiting period of three days after gun is purchased before it can be taken home. 4.8 77%
Limiting the number of guns that can be purchased to one per month. 4.8 67%
Limiting the amount of ammunition you can purchase within a given time period. 4.4 64%
Requiring that all gun owners store their guns in a safe storage unit. 4.4 76%
Banning firearms from all workplace settings nationally. 4.3 60%
Requiring that gun buyers complete safety training and a test for their specific firearm. 4.1 79%
Implementing a national “buy-back” program for all banned firearms and magazines, where the government pays people to turn in illegal guns. 3.9 74%
Banning firearms from schools and college campuses nationally. 3.8 68%
Requiring that all gun owners store their guns with childproof locks. 3.5 82%
Requiring every state to honor out-of-state permits to carry a concealed weapon. 1.7 73%
Authorizing stand-your-ground laws nationally that allow people to defend themselves using lethal force without needing to retreat first. 1.7 71%

How We Made Our Matrix

To build a list of possible policies, we consulted the academic literature on laws from American states and foreign countries and spoke with advocates for gun rights and gun control. Both surveys were conducted in June of last year.

For our measure of popularity, Morning Consult conducted an internet survey of 1,975 voters, who were asked whether they approved of the possible laws.

For our effectiveness survey, we asked experts in gun policy to evaluate each idea on a scale of 1 to 10, according to how effective they thought it would be in reducing fatalities. We asked the experts to ignore considerations of political or legal feasibility.

Our expert panel consisted of 32 current or retired academics in criminology, public health and law, who have published extensively in peer-reviewed academic journals on gun policy. We know our sample is small and may not include every expert that readers would like consulted. But we feel it represents a useful, if imperfect, measure of what people steeped in the research think might save lives.

The panel of academics included: Cathy Barber, Magdalena Cerdá, Jay Corzine, John Donohue, Laura Dugan, Liza H. Gold, David Hemenway, David Kennedy, Louis Klarevas, Gary Kleck, David Kopel, Tomislav Kovandzic, Adam Lankford, John Lott, Jonathan Metzl, Matthew Miller, Carlisle E. Moody, Andrew Papachristos, Charles Ransford, Peter Reuter, Mark Rosenberg, Robert J. Sampson, Michael Siegel, Gary Slutkin, Robert Spitzer, Stephen P. Teret, George E. Tita, Eugene Volokh, Daniel Webster, April Zeoli and others.

Special thanks to the Fraternal Order of Police and the Major Cities Chiefs Association for distributing the survey to their membership.



America is an exceptional country when it comes to guns. It’s one of the few countries in which the right to bear arms is constitutionally protected. But America’s relationship with guns is unique in another crucial way: Among developed nations, the US is far and away the most violent — in large part due to the easy access many Americans have to firearms. These charts and maps show what that violence looks like compared with the rest of the world, why it happens, and why it’s such a tough problem to fix.

1) America has six times as many firearm homicides as Canada, and nearly 16 times as many as Germany

2) America has 4.4 percent of the world’s population, but almost half of the civilian-owned guns around the world

3) There have been more than 1,500 mass shootings since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting (December 2012)

4) On average, there is more than one mass shooting for each day in America

5) States with more guns have more gun deaths

6) It’s not just the US: Developed countries with more guns also have more gun deaths

7) States with tighter gun control laws have fewer gun-related deaths

8) Still, gun homicides (like all homicides) have declined over the past couple decades

9) Most gun deaths are suicides

10) The states with the most guns report the most suicides

11) Guns allow people to kill themselves much more easily

12) Programs that limit access to guns have decreased suicides

13) Since the shooting of Michael Brown, police have killed at least 2,902 people (May 2017)

14) In states with more guns, more police officers are also killed on duty

15) Support for gun ownership has sharply increased since the early ’90s

16) High-profile shootings don’t appear to lead to more support for gun control

17) But specific gun control policies are fairly popular




US- 10 deaths per 100,000 people.

Finland- 3.6 deaths per 100,000 people

Austria- 3.2 deaths per 100,000 people from the American Journal of the Medicine chart

“Murder is the second leading cause of death among Americans aged 15 to 24, the study found. The research also showed that murder was the third leading cause of death among those aged 25-34. Compared to those in the same age groups in other wealthy countries, Americans aged 15-24 are 49 times more likely to be the victim of a gun-related murder. For those aged 25-34, that number is 32 times more likely, the research revealed.”



My opinion: Our guns have changed, shouldn’t our laws? These guns were available in 1776:Brown Bess Musket,Charleville Musket, American-made Muskets, Long Rifles, Pattern 1776 Infantry Rifle and the Ferguson Rifle.

 The Second Amendment of the Constitution: “A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. On December 15, 1791, the Bill of Rights (the first ten amendments to the Constitution) was adopted, having been ratified by three-fourths of the states.”


The rule, which was finalized in December 2016, added people receiving Social Security checks for mental illnesses and people deemed unfit to handle their own financial affairs to the national background check database, which would have added about 75,000 names to that database. President Barack Obama recommended the now-nullified regulation in a 2013 memo following the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, which left 20 first graders and six others dead. The measure sought to block some people with severe mental health problems from buying guns. The original rule was hotly contested by gun rights advocates who said it infringed on Americans’ Second Amendment rights. Gun control advocates, however, praised the rule for curbing the availability of firearms to those who may not use them with the right intentions.

HOW STRONG ARE THE GUN LAWS IN YOUR STATE?    Look at the interactive map. They analyzed the following criteria:  We looked at five types of gun control enacted at the state level: assault weapons bans, high-capacity magazine bans, gun possession prohibitions for high-risk individuals, gun possession prohibitions for individuals with domestic violence convictions and mandatory background checks.

Why restrict guns? Listen to Obama’s answer at a townhall meeting.

60% OF GUN DEATHS ARE SUICIDES, which SUPPORTS GUN CONTROL– Not all of those suicides are by gun, but a majority are. And while some people feeling suicidal impulses will choose another method if a gun is not at hand, public health researchers cite two reasons guns are particularly dangerous: 1) Guns are more lethal than most other methods people try, so someone who attempts suicide another way is more likely to survive; 2) Studies suggest that suicide attempts often occur shortly after people decide to kill themselves, so people with deadly means at hand when the impulse strikes are more likely to use them than those who have to wait or plan.THAT MEANS THAT STRATEGIES THAT MAKE SUICIDE MORE INCONVENIENT OR DIFFICULT CAN SAVE LIVES. Guns, when they are in the home, can make self-harm both easy and deadly.

Guns have changed shouldn't our laws_






White Supremacy, White Privilege and Racism by Debbie Hecht

Have you ever seen Flesh colored crayons in this many colors?

Part 1: White Supremacy and what is Racism?    comments:  

The 2016 US election was a wake up call. The Trump rhetoric has unleashed the simmering hatred of racism hiding just below the surface of civility in this country. White Supremacy and white privilege are alive and well in the United States. The shock waves of this election have emboldened White Supremacists and exposed great divides among citizens racially, economically and socially. It has become acceptable to incite violence and spew hatred. In just the 2 years from 2014 to 2016, Hate Groups have increased by 14.5% (from the Southern Poverty Law Centers Hate Map- see Bibliography).

THE POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICS supports WHITE SUPREMACY: According to the 2014 Census projections: Whites are the supreme/ dominant race in the United States, being the largest portion of the population is 76.9%, although some percentage of white is also considered Hispanic which is 15.9%.   Hispanics are the largest minority at 17.8%, African Americans are 13.3%, and Asians are 5.7%, American Indians/ Alaska Native 1.3%, native Hawaiians .2%.

On a personal note, I apologize for the simplistic nature of this essay. I think it’s important to disclose my fundamental beliefs. First I believe that we all have some degree of racism. For most whites it is unconscious white privilege.  For people of color it could be anger at white and generalizing that all white people are bad. My intent is to bring embedded, unconscious racism to the consciousness, so that people can watch and hopefully temper their own racial biases. Hopefully this will open the door to the hard conversations that may stir thinking and problem solving along the road to collaboration and change in how our society treats people of color and different cultures.

Great social change awaits us, but it will only come at a great cost and will require a great effort.  This will mean having uncomfortable, heartfelt conversations to understand the lives of others and the suffering caused by white privilege, racism and “othering”. How is our culture “white skewed” by supporting white supremacy and white privilege? Our society is white skewed because of population demographics, the legal system, our educational institutions and our economic and tax systems, to name a few.

Wake up to your degree of Privilege:  -SCORE YOURSELF:                                               Add a POINT for each POINT of PRIVILEGE:

  • If your ancestors were forced to come to the USA not by choice, take one step back.
  • If your primary ethnic identity is “American,” take one step forward.
  • If you were ever called names because of your race, class, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If there were people who worked for your family as servants, gardeners, nannies, etc. take one step forward.
  • If you were ever ashamed or embarrassed of your clothes, house, car, etc. take one step back.
  • If one or both of your parents were “white collar” professionals:  doctors, lawyers, etc. take one step forward.
  • If you were raised in an area where there was prostitution, drug activity, etc., take one step back.
  • If you ever tried to change your appearance, mannerisms, or behavior to avoid being judged or ridiculed, take one step back.
  • If you studied the culture of your ancestors in elementary school, take one step forward.
  • If you went to school speaking a language other than English, take one step back.
  • If there were more than 50 books in your house when you grew up, take one step forward.
  • If you ever had to skip a meal or were hungry because there was not enough money to buy food when you were growing up, take one step back.
  • If you were taken to art galleries or plays by your parents, take one step forward.
  • If one of your parents was unemployed or laid off, not by choice, take one step back.
  • If you have health insurance take one step forward.
  • If you attended private school or summer camp, take one step forward.
  • If your family ever had to move because they could not afford the rent, take one step back.
  • If you were told that you were beautiful, smart and capable by your parents, take one step forward.
  • If you were ever discouraged from academics or jobs because of race, class, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If you were encouraged to attend college by your parents, take one step forward.
  • If you have a disability take one step backward.
  • If you were raised in a single parent household, take one step back.
  • If your family owned the house where you grew up, take one step forward.
  • If you saw members of your race, ethnic group, gender or sexual orientation portrayed on television in degrading roles, take one step back.
  • If you own a car take one step forward.
  • If you were ever offered a good job because of your association with a friend or family member, take one step forward.
  • If you were ever denied employment because of your race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If you were paid less, treated less fairly because of race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If you were ever accused of cheating or lying because of your race, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If you ever inherited money or property, take one step forward.
  • If you had to rely primarily on public transportation, take one step back.
  • If you attended private school at any point in your life take one step forward.
  • If you were ever stopped or questioned by the police because of your race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If you were ever afraid of violence because of your race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • If your parents own their own business take one step forward.
  • If you were generally able to avoid places that were dangerous, take one step forward.
  • If you were ever uncomfortable about a joke related to your race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation but felt unsafe to confront the situation, take one step back.
  • If you use a TDD Phone system take one step backward.
  • If you were ever the victim of violence related to your race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation, take one step back.
  • Imagine you are in a relationship, if you can get married in the State of ___ take one step forward
  • If your parents did not grow up in the United States, take one step back.
  • If your parents attended college take one step forward.
  • If your parents told you that you could be anything you wanted to be, take one step forward.
  • If you are able to take a step forward or backward take two steps forward.

(Adapted from the Penn State classroom version cited below)


The basis of our legal system is the Constitution that was written by white slave owners. The Constitution and our first laws were written to uphold the plantation system, which was dependent upon slave labor. In 1865, the 13th Amendment abolished slavery and ended the Plantation way of life in the south. It states: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” 152 years after the passage of the 13th Amendment, the United States still supports an unconscious social and cultural system called racism.

SLAVERY IN THE PRISONS: Slavery is still allowed in prisons and benefits corporations.  “At least thirty-seven states have legalized the contracting of prison labor by private corporations that mount their operations inside state prisons. The list of such companies contains the cream of U.S. corporate society: IBM, Boeing, Motorola, Microsoft, AT&T, Wireless, Texas Instrument, Dell, Compaq, Honeywell, Hewlett-Packard, Nortel, Lucent Technologies, 3Com, Intel, Northern Telecom, TWA, Nordstrom’s, Revlon, Macy’s, Pierre Cardin, Target Stores, and many more…. All of these businesses are excited about the economic boom generation by prison labor. Just between 1980 and 1994, profits went up from $392 million to $1.31 billion. Inmates in state penitentiaries generally receive the minimum wage for their work, but not all; in Colorado, they get about $2 per hour, well under the minimum. And in privately run prisons, they receive as little as 17 cents per hour for a maximum of six hours a day, the equivalent of $20 per month. The highest-paying private prison is CCA (Corrections Corporation of America) in Tennessee, where prisoners receive 50 cents per hour for what they call “highly skilled positions.” At those rates, it is no surprise that inmates find the pay in federal prisons to be very generous. There, they can earn $1.25 an hour and work eight hours a day, and sometimes overtime. They can send home $200-$300 per month… Ninety-seven percent of 125,000 federal inmates have been convicted of non-violent crimes. It is believed that more than half of the 623,000 inmates in municipal or county jails are innocent of the crimes they are accused of. Of these, the majority are awaiting trial. Two-thirds of the one million state prisoners have committed non-violent offenses. Sixteen percent of the country’s 2 million prisoners suffer from mental illness.”   We are perpetuating a whole new sub-class of working poor who cannot support their families and are not learning valuable skills for when they return to society.

Slavery is the worst form of “othering”. In order to buy/sell, beat, kill, breed human beings, slaves had to be dehumanized. Slave owners needed slaves to work the southern plantations. Somewhat the same happened with indentured servitude in Hawaii with the sugar plantations, but under the guise of corporate domination, where the sugar plantation owners paid wages, but deducted money for housing, things bought at the country store etc. “Othering” means that they are not one of us, they are not like us.

OUR EDUCATION SYSTEM: Education is one route out of from poverty. As the Brooking Institute study states: “The color line divides us still. In recent years, the most visible evidence of this in the public policy arena has been the persistent attack on affirmative action in higher education and employment. From the perspective of many Americans who believe that the vestiges of discrimination have disappeared, affirmative action now provides an unfair advantage to minorities. From the perspective of others who daily experience the consequences of ongoing discrimination, affirmative action is needed to protect opportunities likely to evaporate if an affirmative obligation to act fairly does not exist. And for Americans of all backgrounds, the allocation of opportunity in a society that is becoming ever more dependent on knowledge and education is a source of great anxiety and concern.”


  • Upper class white children frequently attend private school, which leads to less integration in public schools and less understanding of racial differences.
  • Affirmative Action allows people of color more opportunities  for college admission.  There has been mixed support in the courts for affirmative action at state universities.
    • Affirmative Action has been voted out in the state of Michigan in 2014. This was affirmed by the US Supreme Court. Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayer wrote a 75- page dissenting opinion: “This refusal to accept the stark reality that race matters is regrettable. The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to speak openly and candidly on the subject of race, and to apply the Constitution with eyes open to the unfortunate effects of centuries of racial discrimination,” she said, “As members of the judiciary tasked with intervening to carry out the guarantee of equal protection, we ought not sit back and wish away, rather than confront, the racial inequality that exists in our society,” she added.
    • In Fisher v. the University of Texas in April of 2016- The Supreme Courtrejected a challenge to a race-conscious admissions program at the University of Texas at Austin. Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, said courts must give universities substantial but not total leeway in designing their admissions programs. “A university is in large part defined by those intangible ‘qualities which are incapable of objective measurement but which make for greatness,’” Justice Kennedy wrote, quoting from a landmark case re: desegregation. “Considerable deference is owed to a university in defining those intangible characteristics, like student body diversity, that are central to its identity and educational mission.”“But still,” Justice Kennedy added, “it remains an enduring challenge to our nation’s education system to reconcile the pursuit of diversity with the constitutional promise of equal treatment and dignity.”
  • The current Secretary of Education, Betsey de Vos is focused on establishing a voucher system for schools that will further dismantle funding for public schools.
  • Less money for schools means fewer and lower-quality books, less labs, fewer computers, larger classes, less qualified and less experienced teachers can be hired and less new and innovative teaching systems. Few science courses and art courses are available.
  • Student engagement and achievement suffer in over crowded classrooms with lower quality teachers and less enriching materials. Computers are especially important in lower-income areas because families may not have them at home.
  • Nutritional school lunches are important to boost students learning: From a study of all California public schools over a five-year period by the National Bureau of Economic Research: “Students at schools that contract with a healthy school lunch vendor score higher on CA state achievement tests, with larger test score increases for students who are eligible for reduced price or free school lunches.”
  • Applying for admissions to our colleges and universities is daunting for bilingual or poorly educated people. On the positive side many community colleges require remedial classes to raise students knowledge to levels that can help them to be more successful in college. The question is “Why weren’t core competencies stressed in high school?” I think if you look at funding issues, you will see the disparity.


There are frequent legislative battles at the state level over paying a living wage. Currently, 29 states and D.C. have minimum wages above the federal minimum wage of $7.25 per hour.

Low paid workers can barely make ends meet. They see no path to the “American Dream” and they see nothing changing soon. This leads to hopelessness, frustration and anger. Many people are one paycheck from homelessness.

Paying a living wage is better for our country because:

  • Fewer people would be on welfare.
  • Fewer people would need food stamps.
  • Better nutrition means better health and lower health care costs.
  • Fewer people would need assistance with health insurance, care costs and drugs.
  • Higher wages means more people would be contributing to Social Security.
  • More people would be paying income taxes, increasing l federal and state revenues.
  • More money in the national budget would mean more money for other things like infrastructure and education.
  • More people could afford to buy big-ticket items: appliances, cars and homes to stimulate the economy.
  • Since more people would have more buying power there would be more sales taxes paid for local governments.

What is the downside of having a living wage? A Big Mac or a cup of coffee at Dunkin’ Donuts might cost more?  The federal minimum wage in the United States is currently $7.25 an hour (before taxes). Which is  about $6.26 after taxes.

Australia has the highest minimum wage with $9.54 after taxes, then Luxemburg with $9.25 after taxes, then Belgium with $8.57 after taxes.

IRS AND THE TAX SYSTEM: The tax breaks in the current tax system are not understandable to most Americans without hiring a tax professional. Only people who are in the middle to upper classes can afford to hire Certified Public Accountants to navigate the tax system, so they can benefit from tax shelters.  The middle class and lower class may miss out on tax breaks without expert advice.

THE STOCK MARKET: The stock market is confusing to even the most educated people. This avenue of investment is not open to most people. As of April 2016, stock ownership has fallen to 52% of Americans from a high of 60% in 1998.

INEQUALITY IN REAL ESTATE: Owning your own home is one of the best ways for anyone to build wealth. All white people have an experience or know of a friend or relative who has greatly profited by real estate investment. People of Color were omitted from this path to wealth by Redlining and also Deed Restrictions.

REDLINING OF NEIGHBORHOODS: Redlining is defined in Merriam Webster Law Dictionary as: the illegal practice of refusing to offer credit or insurance in a particular community on a discriminatory basis (as because of the race or ethnicity of its residents). Which means that families of color could not get mortgages. This was done by the US Government assisted by real estate agents and appraisers. Ta-Nehisi Coates talked about redlining in his “Case for Reparations” in The Atlantic.Neighborhoods where black people lived were rated “D” and were usually considered ineligible for FHA backing,” he wrote. “Black people were viewed as a contagion. Redlining went beyond FHA-backed loans and spread to the entire mortgage industry, which was already rife with racism, excluding black people from most legitimate means of obtaining a mortgage.” Without access to FHA-insured mortgages, he writes, black families who sought homeownership were forced to turn to predatory and abusive lenders.”

DEED RESTRICTIONS were very common in the 1920s to the 1940s. These restrictions that “ run with the land” and are recorded with the Deed, govern who can own the property. They were known to say “Whites Only” or Negroes not allowed. “Racial restrictive covenants became common practice in cities across the county, dozens of cities in the North, the South, the West,” Seattle Historian Gregory says. “For, you know, a quarter of a century, this was the thing to do.” Sometimes the deeds read “whites only.” In Seattle, Gregory says Asian restrictions were common, while Hispanics were the target in Los Angeles. In 1948, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enforce the racial restrictions. In 1968, Congress outlawed them altogether. But Gregory says their impact endures.”  from NPR: Hidden in Old Home Deeds.


THE UNCONSCIOUSNESS OF “OTHERING” or MARGINALIZING: Whites are somewhat unconscious of this “othering”. We need to understand how this works to. Most people had the experience of “othering” during middle school or high school when there were cliques or the in-crowd, trying to fit in. It might have happened because you are female, when your mother said, “Boys don’t like girls who are too smart”, or possibly your father said, “ You don’t need an education, you’re just going to get married and have kids.”

From Othering 101: “By “othering”, we mean any action by which an individual or group becomes mentally classified in somebody’s mind as “not one of us. Rather than always remembering that every person is a complex bundle of emotions, ideas, motivations, reflexes, priorities, and many other subtle aspects, it’s sometimes easier to dismiss them as being in some way less human, and less worthy of respect and dignity, than we are.”   Human beings are a tribe. There are many human tribes. Race and culture divide people into tribes. It is necessary for survival and emotional thriving to belong.

“White privilege is the right of whites, and only whites, to be judged as individuals, to be treated as a unique self, possessed of all the rights and protections of citizenship. I am not a race, I am the unmarked subject. I am simply man, whereas you might be a black man, an Asian woman, a disabled native man, a homosexual Latina woman, and on and on the qualifiers of identification go. With each keyword added, so too does the burden of representation grow…But white men are just people. Normal. Basic Humanity. We carry the absent mark, which grants us the invisible power of white privilege. Everyone else gets some form of discrimination.” (From the Problem of Othering or Belonging).   White people rarely discuss race. My black friends told me they discuss race everyday. They are discussing the “othering” that occurs in our “white skewed” society. They were shocked that whites don’t discuss race. Whites are the baseline, the standard.

Let’s apply this to racism. I’m ashamed to admit that I used to say, “I’m colorblind” and “I have black friends” which means, I’m not a racist. I would say, “ All lives matter.” This is “othering”, not honoring. This perpetuates the “not seeing” of others that live differently and have different circumstances. It denies and dismisses the existence and problems of privilege. That is why the “Black Lives Matter” Movement is so important, it honors the differences and problems of the culture.

In an interview with Oprah Winfrey, black poet Claudia Rankin, sums it up very well:

Oprah: Why whiteness? 
Claudia Rankine: Every sphere of life—housing, healthcare, education, the justice system—is in part defined along racial lines. White-dominated institutions draw those lines, so if you’re white, they’re probably invisible to you. You’re not thinking, my child’s school has a library because of my skin color. The idea of whiteness as the standard runs so deep. Just do a Google image search for “boys being boys” or “beautiful women,” and see how many white people come up versus people of color. We can’t talk about race without talking about what our culture privileges.
O: Does the term whiteness make white people defensive?
CR: They’ll anxiously insist, “I’m not racist.” Well, yes, you are. We all have biases—only I don’t have power behind mine. If we can understand that racism is an active force, we can figure out how we got here. Think about sexism. Until some men could admit that it existed, men and women couldn’t have a dialogue about it.”


From White People Explain why they feel oppressed by Toure on Vice:  What is Racism? “Erikka Knuti, a political strategist, said, “Part of white privilege has been the ability to not know that your privilege exists. If you benefit from racism, do you really want to know that?” I can see where it would be uncomfortable for people to admit that their lives are shaped by unearned advantages, especially in an environment where those advantages may be beginning to slip away, but the blindness itself is a part of the problem. White people have duties as part of the American community. They must be honest with themselves and their co-citizens and admit that white privilege shapes a lot of life in this country. They must understand that the truly pernicious, life-defining sort of racism is not interpersonal, it’s institutional. The systems that shape who lives where, who gets educated, who gets jobs, who gets arrested, and so on, these things shape lives, and they are all heavily weighted in white people’s favor. To ignore all of that is to misunderstand America. If white people admit those things, it will be plain that they are not, in any way, victims”

In the midst of a national policing crisis, the Black Lives Matter movement is trying to will into existence a sense of value for black bodies and some white people respond, “Why are they so anti-white?” That’s dumbfounding to me. I wonder, how could they be so clueless? When white people question why blacks get to say certain words or make certain jokes that whites can’t or when white people ask where is White History Month or when white people question why they have to pay for the racism of their ancestors, it’s offensive and infuriating and it’s also confounding.

In Ta-Nehisi Coates’s astounding new book, Between the World and Me, he refers to white people, as “dreamers” to evoke the sense of them being not fully awake, like sleepwalkers. I’m not sure if white people are like sleepwalkers, or more like ostriches, consciously burying their heads in the sand, hiding from reality. And that’s exactly what vexes me the most about white people: their reluctance, or unwillingness, to recognize the vast impact their race has on their lives and on the lives of all those around them

Modern white Americans are one of the most powerful groups of people to ever exist on this planet and yet those very people—or, if you’re white, you people—staunchly believe that the primary victims of modern racism are whites. We see this in poll after poll. A recent one by the Public Religion Research Institute found 52 percent of whites agreed, “Today discrimination against whites has become as big a problem as discrimination against blacks and other minorities.” A 2011 study led by a Harvard Business School professor went deeper to find that “whites see race as a zero sum game they are losing.” That was even the name of the study. It showed that over the last five decades both blacks and whites think racism against Blacks has been slowly declining, but white people think racism against whites is growing at a fast rate. White people are increasingly certain that they’re being persecuted. The study also notes, “by any metric—employment, police treatment, loan rates, education—stats indicate drastically poorer outcomes for black than white Americans.” White perception and the reality are completely at odds

Tim Wise, anti-racist educator says, “When you’ve had the luxury of presuming yourself to be the norm, the prototype of an American, any change in the demographic and cultural realities in your society will strike you as outsized attacks on your status. You’ve been the king of the hill and never had to share shit with anyone, what is really just an adjustment to a more representative, pluralistic, shared society seems like discrimination. When you’re used to 90 percent or more of the pie, having to settle for only 75 or 70 percent? Oh my God, it’s like the end of the world.”

EXAMPLES OF RACISM: Here’s what I learned: When I lived in Hawaii I was meeting with community groups all over the Big Island to increase support for a 2% Land Fund ballot measure that would purchase and preserve open space and parklands in perpetuity.  I often met with mixed race groups where I was the minority if not the only white person. Remember that the Hawaiian Islands were taken over in the late 1800s by the US Marines to secure (take) the land for the sugar plantations. Their Queen was imprisoned. They call white people haoles, which is a derogatory term for white foreigner. They want their land returned. At one meeting a Native Hawaiian man stood up and shouted at me, “Who you think you are f*^cking haole, trying to buy our land?” I had never encountered that vehemence against the Land Fund; at first I had no idea of what to say. We talked for a while and they ended up supporting it because we all realized the County needed to buy the land so it would be kept the land in it’s natural state. Think about this chart as you read: Here’s my challenge to you. As you read the examples of Racism below, think about your habits and your assumptions. The experiences can be subtle if not passive aggressive or they can be obvious. If you are white, I hope you will see examples that you never even thought about. This is embedded, unconscious racism. I also hope that you will be much more aware of how you look at how we treat others in our society. Think about this chart as you read, closely watch your reactions and see what you need to learn. I hope this will open the door to a new awareness and appreciation of other races and cultures. I challenge you to be curious like you would if you were visiting another country. Think of the inequalities in this country and what you can do to make it better!

What are you experiences? See RACISM SCALE ON THE NEXT PAGE

Part 2 of this Essay will be EXAMPLES OF RACISM

Racism Scale



Information for this essay was taken from the following articles:

  1. The Southern Poverty Law Center’s Hate Map of 917 Hate Groups in the US as of 2017 and increase from 457 in 1999.
  2. “Othering 101” .
  3. The Privilege Walk (Adapted from the Penn State classroom version cited below)
  4. US Census Bureau Population statistics 2016:
  5. The Prison System in the US: Big Business or a new form of Slavery?
  6. The Problem of Othering: Towards Inclusiveness and Belonging
  7. Brookings institute: Linda Darling- Hammond: Unequal Opportunity: Race and Education
  8. Supreme Court Upholds Michigan’s Ban on Affirmative Action:
  9. Supreme Court Upholds Affirmative Action Program at University of Texas President Obama hailed the decision. “I’m pleased that the Supreme Court upheld the basic notion that diversity is an important value in our society,” he told reporters at the White House. “We are not a country that guarantees equal outcomes, but we do strive to provide an equal shot to everybody.”
  10. How the Quality of School lunch affects student’s academic performance:
  11. National Bureau of Economic Research: School Lunch Quality and Academic Research:
  12. Minimum Wage Around the World:
  13. National Conference of State Legislatures: State Minimum Wages 2017
  14. Gallup Poll: Just over half of Americans Own Stock: 

  15. Interactive Redlining Map Zooms In On America’s History Of Discrimination 

  16. The Case for Reparations by Coates in the Atlantic Magazine:

  17. Hidden in Old Deeds: A Segregationist Past:

  18.  There are no others: Othering 101:

  19. The Problem of Othering and Belonging: Towards Inclusiveness and Belonging
  20. What one Poet is Doing to be Seen: Claudia Rankine from Oprah Magazine
  21. White People Explain Why They Feel Oppressed by Toure on Vice:
  22. Brene Brown: We need to keep talking about Charolottesville.
  23. Racism Scale:  
  24. Waking Up White by Debbie Irving
  25. Sermon at the Unitarian Universalist Church of San Dieguito by Reverend Meghan Cefalu and A.L.G. McLeod:


Have you ever seen Flesh colored crayons in this many colors?